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Combustion in IC SI Engines

Combustion in IC SI Engines

All this article considers traditional SI engines were the air/fuel mixture is induced and compressed. GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) will be discussed in another article.   The figures underneath show a typical cylinder pressure plot in an SI engine combustion [Read More]

Emissions Control: After Treatment Systems

Emissions Control: After Treatment Systems

  This is the easier approach to reduce the emissions. Various options are available: Thermal reactors Catalytic converters Particulate traps (CI Engines)   Thermal Reactors Thermal reactors were used extensively in the early days but have limited use nowadays [Read More]

Emissions Control: In-Cylinder

Emissions Control: In-Cylinder

This is the most desirable approach to reduce engine emissions, however is the most complicated.   SI engines The following graph shoes the Variation of HC, CO and NO Concentration with Fuel/Air Equivalence ration in an SI Engine (Heywood 1988). Carbon monoxide (CO) is [Read More]

IC Engine Emissions Control

IC Engine Emissions Control

Read first: IC Engine Emissions Formation of the exhaust emissions components   Vehicle engine emissions can be reduced via two methods: In-Cylinder Control. Lowering engine-out emissions as measured in the exhaust port After Treatment Systems fitted to the exhaust [Read More]

Formation of the exhaust emissions components

Formation of the exhaust emissions components

Read first: IC Engine Emissions   HC – Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons in the exhaust are due to incomplete combustion (unburned and partially burned fuel and also some lubricating oil) due to non-homogeneous combustion conditions within the combustion chamber. [Read More]

SI (Spark Ignition) IC Engine Exhaust Emissions

SI (Spark Ignition) IC Engine Exhaust Emissions

Please read the previous post on IC Engine Emissions The exhaust emissions from SI engines vary greatly with the operating conditions and mode of operation. Cold start. HC and CO emissions produced within the combustion chamber will be high due to the fuel enrichment [Read More]

CI (Compression Ignition) IC Engine Exhaust Emissions

CI (Compression Ignition) IC Engine Exhaust Emissions

Please read the previous post on IC Engine Emissions CI diesel engines almost always run lean (typically AFR > 21) and therefore the levels of gaseous pollutants expected are lower compared to an SI engine. However, since the mixture within the cylinder is heterogeneous, [Read More]

IC Engine Emissions

IC Engine Emissions

Vehicle engine emissions are one of the main sources air pollution. Legislation has been in place to limit the amounts of these emissions since 1968 (in the state of California).  From Euro I (1992) to the Euro VI (2014) regulations have become more and more stringent [Read More]

BMW ActiveE (electric powertrain)

BMW ActiveE (electric powertrain)

Selection of several videos which explain the BMW ActiveE project. The videos are in german. Introduction: History: Safety: Bodyshell: Batteries:   [Read More]

ZF dual mass flywheel

ZF dual mass flywheel

Watch the following video to learn more about how dual mass flywheels work. Video property of ZF. [Read More]

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